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Conversa com... Keir Clarke

Entrevista com o responsável pelo Google Maps Mania

março 18, 2014
Keir Clarke
Photo: Keir Clarke

A primeira entrevista exclusiva do ano, aqui no Visual Loop Brasil, é com alguém que vem contribuindo ativamente, ao longo dos últimos anos, com a divulgação de projetos de visualização – mais concretamente, mapas interativos. O site Google Maps Mania está entre as principais referências na Internet sobre o assunto, e é alimentado continuamente pelo Australiano Keir Clarke.

Para quem não conhece, o Google Maps Mania traz os principais mapas interativos que são publicados na Internet, e é por isso mesmo, uma das referências mais citadas nos nossos posts às quartas-feiras, dedicado à Cartografia Digital. Além de trazer projetos construídos em cima da plataforma do Google, recentemente Keir começou a incluir outros exemplos, graças, principalmente, ao bom momento que os mapas interativos conquistaram com apps, tecnologias de geo localização e GPS – e, claro, o uso cada vez maior para contar narrativas jornalísticas dinâmicas.

Nesta entrevista, Keir fala sobre como começou a sua paixão por mapas e visualização, como ele vê o estado atual do desenvolvimento de narrativas cartográficas, e alguns dos erros mais comuns que ele vê por aí.

 

Visual Loop (VL) – Keir, você recebe semanalmente dezenas de mapas interativos para analisar. Quais são os principais erros que você tem visto serem cometidos, na hora de criar este tipo de visualização?

Keir Clarke (KC)- Os mapas de calor são uma das formas mais populares de visualização cartográfica. Um dos erros mais comuns que vejo neles é quando o desenvolvedor não normaliza os dados, por exemplo, quando não leva em conta as diferenças de população entre locais distintos.

HeatMap, by XKCD
HeatMap, by XKCD

Vejo muitos mapas de calor dos EUA em que a Califórnia se destaca, simplesmente porque o desenvolvedor não levou em consideração que é o estado mais populoso. Porque existe mais crime na Califórnia do que no Wyoming? Bom, a principal razão é porque tem muito mais gente vivendo na Califórnia.

Outro erro que me incomoda é a ausência de legenda no mapa. As legendas não acompanharam bem a transição dos mapas do papel para o digital, e muitos desenvolvedores simplesmente as deixam fora dos seus projetos. O resultado é o usuário fazendo um esforço de tentar entender o que significam os dados no mapa.

VL – E pode nos contar um pouco sobre a sua formação e como a surgiu essa paixão pela cartografia?

LC – Ah! Tenho de revelar o meu grande segredo! Na verdade, eu não tenho nenhuma formação ou experiência profissional em cartografia. Durante 15 anos fui professor de Inglês em Londres. Durante a minha carreira no ensino, fui desenvolvendo gradativamente as minhas habilidades em programação e dei por mim cada vez mais envolvido no que naquela época era conhecido por “e-learning”.

Quando a API do Google Maps foi lançada, em 2005, fiquei imediatamente fascinado. A capacidade de facilmente conectar e visualizar dados em um mapa abriu um novo mundo de possibilidades para mim. Então, pode-se dizer que a minha paixão por mapas se deve inteiramente à invenção do Google Maps.

As legendas não acompanharam bem a transição dos mapas do papel para o digital, e muitos desenvolvedores simplesmente as deixam fora dos seus projetos. O resultado é o usuário fazendo um esforço de tentar entender o que significam os dados no mapa.

VL – E o Google Maps Mania, como é que entrou na sua vida?

KC – O Google Maps Mania começou logo que o Google Maps foi lançado, em 2005. Foi criado por um canadense, o, Mike Pegg. O Google ficou obviamente impressionado com o trabalho que o Mike vinha fazendo no blog, assim como pelo seu conhecimento das possibilidades de criação que a API oferecia – e por isso lhe ofereceram emprego na equipe do Google Maps.

Quando o Mike começou trabalhando no Google, ele quis passar o blog para outra pessoa, de forma a que o Google Maps Mania continuasse independente. E isso coincidiu com a minha mudança de carreira. Eu havia acabado de sair do ensino para me focar em desenvolvimento web. O Mike me conhecia pelos meus ‘mashups de Google Maps” e me perguntou se eu estaria interessado em assumir o blog. Claro que não hesitei em aproveitar a oportunidade – obrigado, Mike!

VL – Em 2010, você deu uma entrevista no All Things Spatial, na qual falou sobre tendências da cartografia digital, assim como alguns números do Google Maps Mania, entre outros assuntos. De lá para cá, muita coisa mudou, certo?

KC – Nessa entrevista para o All Things Spatial, eu falei sobre tendências ligadas à visualização de dados em tempo real. É interessante observar como ma´ps em tempo real de sistemas de trânsito, que visualizam o movimento de barcos, ônibus e trens, se tornaram comuns.

Em poucos anos, assistimos a uma enorme democratização dos dados. Governos e empresas fizeram grandes avanços na disponibilização de dados (embora ainda tenham de evoluir mais). Simultaneamente, vimos o surgimento de novas ferramentas semelhantes à API do Google Maps, que permitem que qualquer pessoa possa criar visualizações desses dados.

Ainda dá para se impressionar com a simples visualização de dados em mapas, dizer “Uau, olhem só esses dados!”. Eu penso, porém, que chegamos a um patamar onde os desenvolvedores estão começando a ir além da simples visualização dos dados, e passaram a buscar as histórias e narrativas escondidas neles.

Chegamos a um patamar onde os desenvolvedores estão começando a ir além da simples visualização dos dados, e passaram a buscar as histórias e narrativas escondidas neles

VL – E dentro dessas novas tendências, o que você acha do uso crescente de mapas pelos portais de notícias, como parte das suas narrativas interativas?

KC – A popularização crescente do que é designado por ‘long-form journalism’ ou “jornalismo de narrativa” é o que realmente me interessa neste momento. Ao longo do ano passado, vimos vários exemplos excelentes desta forma de jornalismo, com os mapas sendo usados para contar histórias importantes.

A Jamaican Slave Revolt Map e o Hussain’s Journey são ótimos exemplos disso. Tal como o In Flight, do The Guardian.

VL – Gostaria de falar agora sobre dois posts recentes que você publicou no Google Maps Mania. O primeiro (Mapped Visualizations Just Grew Up) está bem relacionado com a pergunta anterior, sobre o interativo do The Guardian In Flight . O que te impressionou nesta visualização?

KC – Esse trabalho do The Guardian, o In Flight inclui um mapeamento animado de 24 horas de vôos no mundo. O que me impressionou mesmo foi como o The Guardian pegou nesse mapa como o ponto inicial para contar uma história maior. O mapa é usado para transmitir uma visão geral da história da aviação comercial no mundo.

O jornal usa esta visualização para perguntar (e responder) como é que, em um século, a humanidade evoluiu desde primeiro voo dos Irmãos Wright até se transformar na gigantesca industria que é hoje. Ou seja, a visualização é usada como o ponto de partida para contar a importante história do nascimento e desenvolvimento da aviação.

VL – O segundo post (The Slow Death of the Google Maps API) foi um pouco provocador (e você ainda escreveu um follow-up, devido às reações), criticando o facto de que “a equipe da API do Google Maps tem estado completamente inativa nos últimos dois anos.”. Que melhorias você gostaria de ver no Google Maps?

KC – Devopc confessar que o título ‘The Slow Death of the Google Maps API’ foi um pouco de ‘link-bait’, para atrair os leitores. Contudo, o post revela a minha preocupação com os recentes desenvolvimentos da API do Google Maps.

Como alguém de fora, me dá a sensação de que que o Google está focando em melhorar a API para dispositivos móveis, como tablets e smartphones. Acho que eles sabem o que estão fazendo e devem ter analisado todas as tendências de acesso à Internet. Por isso, eles parecem mesmo dedicados em desenvolver o Google Maps SDK para iOS e a API do Google Maps para Android.

Talvez essa seja a razão porque temos visto tão pouco investimento na API do Google Maps v3 nos últimos dois anos. Felizmente, nesse período surgiram o MapBox e o LeafletJS, que estão se tranformando em poderosas ferramentas de visualização cartográfica.

Onde o MapBox e o LeafletJS levam a melhor da API do Google Maps API é no controle que eles dão ao desenvolvedor sobre a estética e o design dos mapas. Vejam alguns dos mais belos mapas do MapBox: https://www.mapbox.com/blog/vector-tiles/.

Penso que o Google poderia dedicar muito mais esforços na sua função Styled Maps, que dá uma certa autonomia ao desenvolvedor, mas poderia ser muito, muito melhor. Por exemplo, dando mais controle sobre os rótulos e textos nos mapas.

Outro projeto muito interessante é o que está sendo desenvolvido pela Vizzuality, que está construindo uma biblioteca para ajudar desenvolvedores a criarem as suas narrativas cartográficas. Vocês podem acompanhar o projeto aqui: Odyssey.js GitHub page. Se eu trabalhasse na equipe de visualização/infográficos um jornal, com certeza estaria fazendo uma biblioteca seguindo essa linha, um modelo que permita criar narrativas longas em que os mapas são usados para visualizar dados e também para contar histórias mais profundas, em torno de temas importantes.

Onde o MapBox e o LeafletJS levam a melhor da API do Google Maps API é no controle que eles dão ao desenvolvedor sobre a estética e o design dos mapas.

VL – E quanto a novos projetos, o que podemos esperar do Google Maps Mania no futuro?

KC – Os leitores mais antigos do Google Maps Mania já notaram que desde o ano passado eu abri mais espaço no blog para poutras plataformas de desenvolvimento de mapas. Isso é um testemunho do excelente trabalho que esses serviços estão fazendo, em especial o MapBox, LealfetJS e Esri.

O Google Maps Mania irá continuar cobrindo tudo o que diz repeito ao Google Maps, mas está definitivamente caminhando para ser um blog mais abrangente sobre mapas digitais. Acho que, em algum momento, vou ter de abandonar o ‘Google’ e ser só ‘Maps Mania’.

Nesta entrevista falei bastante sobre mapas e narrativas. No final de 2013 eu lancei uma dessas narrativas nem básicas sobre um navio chamado Mary Celeste. O mapa faz uso do waypoints.js, um plug-in dentro da API do Google Maps API para criar narrativas cartográficas. Não está fucnionando perfeitamente no momento. Se/quando eu tiver um tempinho, gostaria de fazer alguns ajustes e lança-lo como uma biblioteca, semelhante ao Odyssey.js que mencionei anteriormente.

Estou também trabalhando em um projeto com o Map Channels. Não posso adiantar muita coisa neste momento, exceto que será uma plataforma interessante para qualquer um criar mapas e visualizações com o Google Maps.

VL – Keir, muito obrigado!

KC – Obrigado, e continuem com o ótimo trabalho no Visual Loop!

 

Agradecemos ao Keir a disponibilidade, e pelo trabalho fantástico que ele faz no Google Maps Mania. Acompanhe as suas atualizações também no Google+ e no Twitter.

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Escrito por Tiago Veloso

Tiago Veloso is the founder and editor of Visualoop and Visualoop Brasil . He is Portuguese, currently based in Bonito, Brazil.

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