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Realidades Incrustadas

A socialização primária com as estórias interativas reconfiguram os processos de aprendizagem e de ensino.

setembro 10, 2012

Há quase trinta anos, na minha primeira aula como caloira universitária, explicava o professor de economia (sim, porque sociologia tinha toneladas de economia), que o mundo estava a mudar aceleradamente e que nós não sabíamos a sorte que tínhamos. Era nossa obrigação sermos alunos brilhantes, já que a vida académica nos estava bastante facilitada. Existiam fotocopiadoras, quando no tempo em que o professor tinha estudado, era preciso ir às bibliotecas e fazer fichas de leitura sobre os livros. Agora podíamos fotocopiar e estudar confortavelmente em casa. Note-se que à época os livros eram raros e caríssimos e as Associações de Estudantes encarregavam-se de organizar umas sebentas com os textos obrigatórios, que vendiam a preços muito baixos. Portanto, dizia o professor, tendes a vida completamente facilitada e não imaginais a dificuldade que era estudar no meu tempo.

(imagem: Old Books, do usuário do Flickr DavidFlores)

Estudávamos por fotocópias, já que os livros eram um luxo raro e escrevíamos os trabalhos manualmente. Os professores iam carregados de livros para a sala de aulas, para manusearmos, emprestavam-nos os livros e como tínhamos aulas de manhã, a esmagadora maioria dos professores estavam toda a tarde nos gabinetes, para nos atenderem, explicar matérias, tirar dúvidas, ajudar-nos nos trabalhos. Cinco dias por semana.

Fumava-se em todas as aulas. Professores e alunos. Em algumas até se comia e bebia. Eu tinha um gato siamês, bebé, que levava para as aulas dentro da mochila e que passava as aulas a dormir em cima da secretária.

Tínhamos cinco disciplinas anuais e vários trabalhos individuais e de grupo, com apresentação e discussão oral. A bibliografia para cada trabalho era constituída por muitos livros e muitos textos. Umas boas centenas a milhares de páginas.

Uma minoria dos alunos datilografava os trabalhos, a maioria entregava-os escritos manualmente. Cada turma tinha vinte alunos. As aulas do 1º ano eram leccionadas pelos professores catedráticos ou pelos regentes da disciplina.

Trinta anos depois poderia dizer aos meus alunos o mesmo que dizia o meu professor de economia. Existe a Internet, talvez a maior revolução do século XX depois da pílula anticoncepcional. A ligação em rede à escala global, as bibliotecas virtuais, repositórios de material científico à escala global, textos, imagens, infografias explicativas e amigas da compreensão rápida dos fenómenos, mas tenho dúvidas que essa seja a leitura mais adequada.

Tenho-me vindo a interrogar, tal como diz Giddens a propósito das instituições, quando fala em instituições incrustadas, isto é instituições que mantém o mesmo nome, como a família, o casamento ou outras, mas cujo conteúdo é radicalmente diferente, se o mesmo não se aplicará à educação, com novas formas de ensino, aprendizado e partilha tão distintas da realidade de há três décadas.
Os recursos hoje existentes e a socialização primária com a televisão, o vídeo, os jogos de computador, as estórias interativas e as múltiplas aplicações que as tecnologias permitem reconfiguram necessariamente os processos de aprendizado  e de ensino. Não só como ferramentas, mas como processos que afectam a forma de pensar.

Fará algum sentido hoje falar no “meu tempo” como contraponto normativo, positivo ou negativo face a um mundo, que desconfio, que mais do que em acelerada mudança, se constrói como novos territórios, onde a própria realidade é hoje uma realidade incrustada?

Até breve. Boas viagens!

 


Escrito por Graça Joaquim

Sociologist. Professor of Sociology and Tourism Ethics and Social Responsibility in the School of Hospitality and Tourism of Estoril. Researcher at CIES-Iscte.IUL, Portugal

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